Volume 7, Issue 25 (12-2016)                   jemr 2016, 7(25): 129-182 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Garshasbi A, Yusefi M. Assessment of International Sanctions on Iranian Macroeconomic Variables . jemr. 2016; 7 (25) :129-182
URL: http://jemr.khu.ac.ir/article-1-840-en.html
Abstract:   (6383 Views)
Legal and economic dimensions of sanctions, and also its diversity make it difficult to evaluate the contribution of the sanctions on macroeconomic variables; besides quantification of sanction by itself is a major problem. As the first step in this study, we try to offer a new index for representing the sanction in economic modeling. For this purpose by applying the exploratory factor analysis approach, we try to measure the mentioned index and produce the time series for the period of 1978-2010; here twelve variables which are mainly affected by the sanctions included in related process. Then, applying three-stage least squares (3SLS) method for a small macroeconomic model, the contribution of the sanctions on major economic variables such as economic growth, trade, investment and employment are evaluated. According to the findings of this study, the direct effects of sanctions are only significant in growth and term of trade equations. It seems also that there is a direct relationship between severity of the sanctions and its impact on major economic variables.
Full-Text [PDF 3180 kb]   (15900 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: رشد و توسعه و سیاست های کلان
Received: 2013/10/2 | Accepted: 2016/11/16 | Published: 2016/12/19

1.  Arreaza.A. ,Blanco.E and Dorta M (2003). "A small scale macroeconomic Model for Venezuela" central Bank of Venezuela.
2.  Baldwin, D. A. (1985). "Economic statecraft. Princeton", NJ: Princeton University Press.
3.  Barro, R. and X. Sala-i-Martin (1995), Economic Growth, MIT Press
4.  Blanchard, M.F. and Ripsman, N.M., "Rethinking Sensitivity Interdependence: Assessing Trade, Financial and Monetary Linkages Between States," International Interactions, vol. 27, no. 2 (June 2001), pp. 95-127.
5.  Brenna, G. and J. Buchanan.( 1980), The Power to Tax: Analytical Foundations of a Fiscal Constitution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
6.  Burt,C. (1941). "The factor of the mind: An introduction to Factor analysis in psychology". New York: MacMillan.
7.  Caruso, P, (2003). "The impact of International Economic Sanctions on Trade. An Empirical Analysis". Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, vol. 9, no.2. [DOI:10.2202/1554-8597.1061]
8.  Central Bank of Iran. National Accounts of Iran (1990)
9.  Clifton, T. & Bapat, N. (2003). "Imposing sanctions: States, firms, and economic coercion". International Studies Review, 5(4), 65-79. [DOI:10.1111/j.1079-1760.2003.00504007.x]
10.  Delavari, M, and Karimikia, A, (1988). "The effect of fiscal policy on the trade balance of Iran with emphasis on government spending", Economic Research, Vol (85).
11.  Ducanes.G. , Cagas.M.A and Qin.D. (2005)." A Small Macroeconometrics modell of the Philippine Economy". Economic and research Department, Asian Development Bank.
12.  Faraji S.D, (2012). "Early phase success and long run failure of economic sanctions With an application to Iran" .Working Papers are available in electronic format at www.iss.nl
13.  Guttman, L. (1954). "Some necessary conditions for common factor analysis". Psychometrika, 19, 149-161. [DOI:10.1007/BF02289162]
14.  Hall, G.H., 1984. "Measurement of nitrification rates in Lake sediments: Comparison of the nitrification inhibitors nitrapyrin and allylthiourea". Microb. Ecol., 10: 25-36.
15.  Hall, Robert E. (1978): "Stochastic Implications of the Life Cycle–Permanent Income Hypothesis," Journal of Political Economy, 86(6), 971–987.
16.  Hotellimg, H. (1933). "Analysis of a complex of statistical variables into Principal components", J. Educ. Psych., 24, 417-441, 498-520.
17.  http://databank.worldbank.org/
18.  http://sanctions.blogfa.com/post
19.  http://sanctions.blogfa.com/post/25
20.  http://unctadstat.unctad.org/ReportFolders/reportFolders.aspx
21.  http://www.energy-pedia.com/news/iran/new-149892
22.  Hufbauer, C., Schott J. & Elliott, (1990)," KEconomic sanctions reconsidered: History and current policy". Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.
23.  Hutbauer.G.C , schott.J and Elliott K.(2001) "Economics sanctions Reconsidered" 3rd ed , Rirised , Washington. Institute for International Economics.
24.  Jalali Naeeni, S, A, and Khiabani, N, (1997). "The effect of macroeconomic variables on the trade balance in Iran", Journal of Commerce, Vol (54).
25.  Maleki, A, (2011). "Necessity of interacting the Ministry of Industry, Mine and Trade and agriculture commodities market regulation under sanctions", Institute for Trade Studies and Research.
26.  Memarian, E, and Jalali Naeeni, S, A, (2010). "The short-term and long-term foreign currency shocks on the trade balance in Iran", Economic Research, Vol (37).
27.  Morgan, C.T. (1990). Issue linkages in international crisis bargaining. American Journal of Political Science, 34(2), 311-333. [DOI:10.2307/2111449]
28.  Noferesti, M, (2005). "The effect of monetary and foreign exchange policies on the economy of Iran in the context of a dynamic macro-econometric model", Economic Research, Vol (70).
29.  Organization of management and country planning. Office macroeconomics, time series 1959-1981.
30.  Pape, R. (1998). "Why economic sanctions still do not work?" International Security, 23(1) 66-77. [DOI:10.1162/isec.23.1.66]
31.  Pearson, K. (1901). "On Lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space. Philosophical Magazine Series", 6, 2, 559-572. [DOI:10.1080/14786440109462720]
32.  Rao, C.R. (1956). "Estimation and tests of significance in factor analysis. Psychometrika", 20, 92-111.
33.  Roman Daniel Thieler (2009). "Sanctions: A Failure Or Success? : the Case of Myanmar" Minnesota State University,1 edition.
34.  Spearman, C. (1904). "General intelligence" objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201-293. [DOI:10.2307/1412107]
35.  Statistical Center of Iran. Time Series Database.
36.  Stiglitz ,J , Richard.A and Bruce. G.(1994)."Information Economics and Policy", Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 77-82.
37.  The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Database time series.
38.  The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Economic indicators. Different years.
39.  Thompson, G. & Hunnicutt, C. (1944). The effect of prase and blame on the work achievement of introverts and extraverts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 35, 257-266. [DOI:10.1037/h0057284]
40.  Torbat, A. (2005). "Impacts of the US Trade and Financial Sanctions on Iran" The World Economy, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 407-434.
41.  www.irica.gov.ir
42.  www.jamejamonline
43.  www.loc.gov
44.  www.moe.org.ir
45.  www.planecrashinfo.com
46.  www.tpo.ir
47.  www.treas.gov
48.  Yazdanpanah, A, (1995). "Theoretical analysis of economic sanctions", Monthly Economic Survey, Vol (98).
49.  www.cbi.ir

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Economic Modeling Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb